16. Acute Interventions

Matthew J Meyer PhD, Scott Janssen MSc, Joshua Wiener BSc, Robert Teasell MD FRCPC  

Chapter 16 Abbreviations

During the initial stages of an acquired brain injury (ABI), there are varying degrees of irreversible damage to the central nervous system, commonly known as the primary injury.  Subsequently, a chain of events leads to ongoing injury to the brain caused by edema, hypoxia, and ischemia as a result of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), the release of toxic amounts of excitatory neurotransmitters, and impaired ionic homeostasis (Werner & Engelhard 2007). Acute brain injury treatment therefore focuses on preventing or minimizing the extent of secondary injury by targeting intracranial hypertension, oxygenation and ion homeostasis in order to reduce cellular injury.