1. Hagen C. Language disorders in head trauma. In: Costello JM, Holland AL, eds. Handbook of Speech and Language Disorders. Sand Diego, CA: College Press Hill; 1986.
  2. Woo BH, Nesathurai S. The Rehabilitation of People with Traumatic Brain Injury. 1st ed. Boston, MA: Blackwell Science, 2000.
  3. Bode RK, Heinemann AW, Semik P. Measurement properties of the Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) and improvement patterns during inpatient rehabilitation. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2000;15:637-655.
  4. Levin HS, O'Donnell VM, Grossman RG. The Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test. A practical scale to assess cognition after head injury. J Nerv Ment Dis 1979;167:675-684.
  5. van Baalen B, Odding E, Maas AI, Ribbers GM, Bergen MP, Stam HJ. Traumatic brain injury: classification of initial severity and determination of functional outcome. Disabil Rehabil 2003;25:9-18.
  6. Wade DT. Measurement in neurological rehabilitation. Curr Opin Neurol Neurosurg 1992;5:682-686.
  7. Novack TA, Alderson AL, Bush BA, Meythaler JM, Canupp K. Cognitive and functional recovery at 6 and 12 months post-TBI. Brain Inj 2000;14:987-996.
  8. Zafonte RD, Mann NR, Millis SR, Black KL, Wood DL, Hammond F. Posttraumatic amnesia: its relation to functional outcome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1997;78:1103-1106.
  9. Bayley M, Teasell R, Kua A, Marshall S, Cullen N, Colantonio A. ABIKUS Evidence Based Recommendations for Rehabilitation of Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury. 1st ed. Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation, 2007.
  10.  Mysiw WJ, Fugate LP.., Clinchot DM. Assessment, Early Rehabilitation, Intervention, and Prevention. In: Zasler ND KDZR, ed. Brain Injury Medicine. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing; 2007;283-304.
  11. Mayer NH, Esquenazi A, Keenan MAE. Assessing and Treating Muscle Overactivity in the Upper Motoneuron Syndrome. In: Zasler ND, Katz DI, Zafonte RD, eds. Brain Injury Medicine. 1st ed. New York, NY: Demos Medical Publishing; 2007;615-653.
  12. Marshall S, Teasell R, Aubut J, Lippert C. Motor & Sensory Impairment Remediation Post Acquired Brain Injury. In: Teasell R, Marshall S, Cullen N., Bayley M., eds. Evidence-Based Review of Moderate to Severe Acquired Brain Injury. 4th ed. Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation; 2010.
  13. Zasler ND, Katz DI, Zafonte RD. Brain Injury Medicine. New York: Demos Medical Publishing, 2007.
  14. Mayer NH. Clinicophysiologic concepts of spasticity and motor dysfunction in adults with an upper motoneuron lesion. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S1-13.
  15. Mortenson PA, Eng JJ. The use of casts in the management of joint mobility and hypertonia following brain injury in adults: a systematic review. Phys Ther 2003;83:648-658.
  16. Grissom SP, Blanton S. Treatment of upper motoneuron plantarflexion contractures by using an adjustable ankle-foot orthosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:270-273.
  17. Mayer NH, Esquenazi A, Childers MK. Common patterns of clinical motor dysfunction. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S21-S35.
  18. Lance JW. The control of muscle tone, reflexes, and movement: Robert Wartenberg Lecture. Neurology 1980;30:1303-1313.
  19. Gormley ME, Jr., O'Brien CF, Yablon SA. A clinical overview of treatment decisions in the management of spasticity. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S14-S20.
  20. Meythaler JM, Guin-Renfroe S, Johnson A, Brunner RM. Prospective assessment of tizanidine for spasticity due to acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1155-1163.
  21. Mayer NH, Esquenazi A. Muscle overactivity and movement dysfunction in the upper motoneuron syndrome. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2003;14:855-viii.
  22. Gracies JM, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM. Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part I: Local treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S61-S91.
  23. Gracies JM, Nance P, Elovic E, McGuire J, Simpson DM. Traditional pharmacological treatments for spasticity. Part II: General and regional treatments. Muscle Nerve Suppl 1997;6:S92-120.
  24. Meythaler JM, Clayton W, Davis LK, Guin-Renfroe S, Brunner RC. Orally delivered baclofen to control spastic hypertonia in acquired brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2004;19:101-108.
  25. Jankovic J, Brin MF. Therapeutic uses of botulinum toxin. N Engl J Med 1991;324:1186-1194.
  26. Yablon SA, Agana BT, Ivanhoe CB, Boake C. Botulinum toxin in severe upper extremity spasticity among patients with traumatic brain injury: an open-labeled trial. Neurology 1996;47:939-944.
  27. Fock J, Galea MP, Stillman BC, Rawicki B, Clark M. Functional outcome following Botulinum toxin A injection to reduce spastic equinus in adults with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj 2004;18:57-63.
  28.  van Rhijn J, Molenaers G, Ceulemans B. Botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of children and adolescents with an acquired brain injury. Brain Inj 2005;19:331-335.
  29. Meythaler JM, DeVivo MJ, Hadley M. Prospective study on the use of bolus intrathecal baclofen for spastic hypertonia due to acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996;77:461-466.
  30. Meythaler JM, McCary A, Hadley MN. Prospective assessment of continuous intrathecal infusion of baclofen for spasticity caused by acquired brain injury: a preliminary report. J Neurosurg 1997;87:415-419.
  31. Meythaler JM, Guin-Renfroe S, Hadley MN. Continuously infused intrathecal baclofen for spastic/dystonic hemiplegia: a preliminary report. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1999;78:247-254.
  32. Stokic DS, Yablon SA, Hayes A. Comparison of clinical and neurophysiologic responses to intrathecal baclofen bolus administration in moderate-to-severe spasticity after acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2005;86:1801-1806.
  33. Becker R, Alberti O, Bauer BL. Continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion in severe spasticity after traumatic or hypoxic brain injury. J Neurol 1997;244:160-166.
  34. Dario A, Di Stefano MG, Grossi A, Casagrande F, Bono G. Long-term intrathecal Baclofen infusion in supraspinal spasticity of adulthood. Acta Neurol Scand 2002;105:83-87.
  35. Francois B, Vacher P, Roustan J et al. Intrathecal baclofen after traumatic brain injury: early treatment using a new technique to prevent spasticity. J Trauma 2001;50:158-161.
  36. Francisco GE, Hu MM, Boake C, Ivanhoe CB. Efficacy of early use of intrathecal baclofen therapy for treating spastic hypertonia due to acquired brain injury. Brain Inj 2005;19:359-364.