Reference List

Aboulafia-Brakha, T., Buschbeck, C. G., Rochat, L., & Annoni, J. M. (2013). Feasibility and initial efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural group programme for managing anger and aggressiveness after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil, 23(2), 216-233.

Abrams, D., Barker, L. T., Haffey, W., & Nelson, H. (1993). The economics of return to work for survivors of traumatic brain injury: vocational services are worth the investment. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 8(4), 59-76.

Accreditation Canada. (2008). Accreditation Canada. . from

Agrawal, M., & Joshi, M. (2014). Impact of rehabilitation on functional outcome during the first year of moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 28, 292-297.

Andelic, N., Ye, J., Tornas, S., Roe, C., Lu, J., Bautz-Holter, E., . . . Aas, E. (2014). Cost-effectiveness analysis of an early-initiated, continuous chain of rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma, 31(14), 1313-1320.

Armengol, C. G. (1999). A multimodal support group with Hispanic traumatic brain injury survivors. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 14(3), 233-246.

Aronow, H. U. (1987). Rehabilitation effectiveness with severe brain injury: translating research into policy. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 2(3), 24-36.

Ashley, M. J., Ashley, J., & Kreber, L. (2012). Remediation of information processing following traumatic brain injury: A community-based rehabilitation approach. NeuroRehabi, 31(1), 31-39.

Badjatia, N., Carney, N., Croco, T., Fallat, M., Hennes, H., Jagoda, A., . . . Lerner, E. (2007). Guidelines for the pre-hospital management of severe traumatic brain injury. 2nd Edition. Prehosp Emerg Care, 12(1), S1-52.

Baethmann, A., Chapuis, D., & Wirth, A. (1999). System analysis of patient management during the pre- and early clinical phase in severe head injury. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 73, 93-97.

Beaulieu, C.L., Dijkers, M.P., Barrett, R.S., Horn, S.D., Guiffrida, C.G., Timpson, M.L. … Hammond, F.M. (2015). Occupational, physical, and speech therapy treatment activities during inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury, Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 96(8), S222-S234.

Bender, A., Bauch, S., & Grill, E. (2014). Efficacy of a post-acute interval inpatient neurorehabilitation programme for severe brain injury. Brain Inj, 28(1), 44-50.

Blackerby, W. (1990). Intensity of rehabilitation and length of stay. Brain Inj, 4(2), 167-173.

Blackerby, W., & Baumgarten, A. (1990). A model treatment program for the head-injured substance abuser: preliminary findings. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 5(3), 47-59.

Brain Injury Association of America. (2015). Learn about the brain injury association of America. 2015, from

Brain Injury Association of Canada. (2015). Brain Injury Association of Canada (BIAC). from

Braunling-McMorrow, D., Dollinger, S. J., Gould, M., Neumann, T., & Heiligenthal, R. (2010). Outcomes of post-acute rehabilitation for persons with brain injury. Brain Inj, 24(7-8), 928-938.

Braverman, S. E., Spector, J., Warden, D., Wilson, B., Ellis, T., Bamdad, M., & Salazar, A. (1999). A multidisciplinary TBI inpatient rehabilitation programme for active duty service members as part of a randomized clinical trial. Brain Inj, 13(6), 405-415.

Brown, S. B., Colantonio, A., & Kim, H. (2012). Gender differences in discharge destination among older adults following traumatic brain injury. Health Care for Women Int, 33(10), 896-904.

Bulger, E. M., Nathens, A. B., Rivara, F. P., MacKenzie, E., Sabath, D. R., & Jurkovich, G. J. (2007). National variability in out-of-hospital treatment after traumatic injury. Ann Emerg Med, 49(3), 293-301.

Bulger, E. M., Nathens, A. B., Rivara, F. P., Moore, M., MacKenzie, E. J., & Jurkovich, G. J. (2002). Management of severe head injury: Institutional variations in care and effect on outcome*. Crit Care Med, 30(8), 1870-1876.

Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2014). National Rehabilitation Reporting System, Data Quality Documentation, 2013-2014. Ontario: CIHI.

Carney, N., Ghajar, J. (2007). Introduction. J Neurotrauma, 24(S 1), S1-2.

Centers for Disease Control. (2008). Centers for disease control (CDC). from

Chan, L., Doctor, J., Temkin, N., MacLehose, R. F., Esselman, P., Bell, K., & Dikmen, S. (2001). Discharge disposition from acute care after traumatic brain injury: the effect of insurance type. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82(9), 1151-1154.

Chan, V., Zagorski, B., Parsons, D., & Colantonio, A. (2013). Older adults with acquired brain injury: outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation. Can J Aging, 32, 278-286.

Chen, A., Chan, V., Zagorski, B., Parsons, D., & Colantonio, A. (2014). Factors associated with living setting at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation after acquired brain injury in Ontario, Canada. J Rehabil Med, 46(2), 144-152.

Cicerone, K. D., Mott, T., Azulay, J., & Friel, J. C. (2004). Community integration and satisfaction with functioning after intensive cognitive rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 85(6), 943-950.

Cifu, D. X., Kreutzer, J. S., Kolakowsky-Hayner, S. A., Marwitz, J. H., & Englander, J. (2003). The relationship between therapy intensity and rehabilitative outcomes after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 84(10), 1441-1448.

Cifu, D. X., Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Rosenthal, M., Englander, J., & High, W. (1996). Functional outcomes of older adults with traumatic brain injury: a prospective, multicenter analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77(9), 883-888.

Citerio, G., Stocchetti, N., Cormio, M., Beretta, L., Galli, D., & Pesenti, A. (2003). Application of guidelines for severe head trauma: data from an Italian database. Euro J Emerg Med, 10(1), 68-72.

Colantonio, A., Ratcliff, G., Chase, S., Kelsey, S., Escobar, M., & Vernich, L. (2004). Long term outcomes after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Disabil Rehabil, 26(5), 253-261.

Cope, D., & Hall, K. (1982). Head injury rehabilitation: benefit of early intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 63(9), 433-437.

Cope, D. N. (1995). The effectiveness of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: A review. Brain Inj, 9(7), 649-670.

Cope, D. N., Mayer, N. H., & Cervelli, L. (2005). Development of systems of care for persons with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 20(2), 128-142.

Cullen, N. (2007). Canadian healthcare perspective in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 22(4), 214-220.

Cullen, N., Vimalesan, K., & Taggart, C. (2013). Efficacy of a functionally-based neurorehabilitation programme: A retrospective case-matched study of rehabilitation outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 27(7-8), 799-806.

Cullen, N., Vimalesan, K., & Taggart, C. (2013). Efficacy of a functionally-based neurorehabilitation programme: a retrospective case-matched study of rehabilitation outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 27, 799-806.

Curran, C., Dorstyn, D., Polychronis, C., & Denson, L. (2015). Functional outcomes of community-based brain injury rehabilitation clients. Brain Inj, 29, 25-32.

Cusick, C. P., Gerhart, K. A., Mellick, D., Breese, P., Towle, V., & Whiteneck, G. G. (2003). Evaluation of the home and community-based services brain injury Medicaid Waiver Programme in Colorado. Brain Inj, 17(11), 931-945.

Dahdah, M.N., Barnes, S., Buros, A., Dubiel, R., Dunklin, C., Callender, L. … Sherer, M. (2016). Variations in inpatient rehabilitation functional outcomes across centers in the traumatic brain injury model systems study and the influence of demographics and injury severity on patient outcomes. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 97(11), 1821-1831.

Dahdah, M. N., Barisa, M. T., Schmidt, K., Barnes, S. A., Dubiel, R., Dunklin, C., . . . Shafi, S. (2014). Comparative effectiveness of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Differential outcomes across TBI model systems centers. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 29(5), 451-459.

de Guise, E., LeBlanc, J., Dagher, J., Tinawi, S., Lamoureux, J., Marcoux, J., . . . Feyz, M. (2014). Characteristics of patients with acute traumatic brain injury discharged against medical advice in a level 1 urban trauma centre. Brain Inj, 28, 1288-1294.

de Koning, M. E., Spikman, J. M., Coers, A., Schonherr, M. C., & van der Naalt, J. (2015). Pathways of care the first year after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury-discharge destinations and outpatient follow-up. Brain Inj, 29, 423-429.

Dijkers, M., Brandstater, M., Horn, S., Ryser, D., & Barrett, R. (2013). Inpatient rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: the influence of age on treatments and outcomes. NeuroRehabil, 32, 233-252.

Drag, L., Renninger, C., King, R., & Hoblyn, J. (2013). Predictors of inpatient and outpatient healthcare utilization in veterans with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 28(1), 39-47.

DuBose, J. J., Browder, T., Inaba, K., Teixeira, P. G., Chan, L. S., & Demetriades, D. (2008). Effect of trauma center designation on outcome in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Arch  Surg, 143(12), 1213-1217.

Duchnick, J. J., Ropacki, S., Yutsis, M., Petska, K., & Pawlowski, C. (2015). Polytrauma transitional rehabilitation programs: Comprehensive rehabilitation for community integration after brain injury. Psychol Serv, 12, 313-321.

Edwards, M., McNeil, J., & Greenwood, R. (2003). Process and outcome during early inpatient rehabilitation after brain injury. Disabil Rehabil, 25(8), 405-410.

Eicher, V., Murphy, M. P., Murphy, T. F., & Malec, J. F. (2012). Progress assessed with the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in 604 participants in 4 types of post-inpatient rehabilitation brain injury programs. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 93(1), 100-107.

Espinosa-Aguilar, A., Reyes-Morales, H., Huerta-Posada, C. E., de León, I. L.-P., López-López, F., Mejía-Hernández, M., . . . Rebollar-González, J. A. (2008). Design and validation of a critical pathway for hospital management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma, 64(5), 1327-1341.

Esselman, P. C., Dikmen, S. S., Bell, K., & Temkin, N. R. (2004). Access to inpatient rehabilitation after violence-related traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 85(9), 1445-1449.

European Brain Injury Society. (2015). European Brain Injury Society. 2015, from

Evans, R. W. (1997). Postacute neurorehabilitation: roles and responsibilities within a national information system. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 78(8), S17-S25.

Fakhry, S. M., Trask, A. L., Waller, M. A., & Watts, D. D. (2004). Management of brain-injured patients by an evidence-based medicine protocol improves outcomes and decreases hospital charges. J Trauma, 56(3), 492-500.

Faul, M., Wald, M. M., Rutland-Brown, W., Sullivent, E. E., & Sattin, R. W. (2007). Using a cost-benefit analysis to estimate outcomes of a clinical treatment guideline: testing the Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma, 63(6), 1271-1278.

Formisano, R., Azicnuda, E., Sefid, M.K., Zamplini, M., Scarponi, F., Avesani, R (2017). Early rehabilitation: Benefits in patients with severe acquired brain injury, Neurol Sci, 38(1), 181-194. 

Foster, M., Fleming, J., Tilse, C., & Rosenman, L. (2000). Referral to post-acute care following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the Australian context. Brain Inj, 14(12), 1035-1045.

Foster, M., & Tilse, C. (2003). Referral to rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury: a model for understanding inequities in access. Soc Sci Med, 56(10), 2201-2210.

Foy, C. M. L. (2014). Long term efficacy of an integrated neurological and vocational rehabilitation programme for young adults with acquired brain injury. J Occup Rehabil, 24, 533-542.

Foy, C. M. L., & Somers, J. S. (2013). Increase in functional abilities following a residential educational and neurorehabilitation programme in young adults with acquired brain injury. NeuroRehabil, 32, 671-678.

Gabriel, E. J., Ghajar, J., Jagoda, A., Pons, P. T., Scalea, T., Walters, B. C., & Brain, T. F. (2002). Guidelines for prehospital management of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma, 19(1), 111.

Gamble, D., & Moore, C. L. (2003). Supported employment: Disparities in vocational rehabilitation outcomes, expenditures and service time for persons with traumatic brain injury. J Vocat Rehabil, 19(1), 47-57.

Ghajar, J., Hariri, R. J., Narayan, R. K., Iacono, L. A., Firlik, K., & Patterson, R. H. (1995). Survey of critical care management of comatose, head-injured patients in the United States. Critic Care Med, 23(3), 560-567.

Godbolt, A.K., Stenberg, M., Lingren, M., Ulfarsson, T., Lannsjo,M., Stalnacke, B.M., … DeBoussard, C.N. (2015).Associations between care pathways and outcome 1 year after severe traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 30(3), E41-E51.

Goodacre, S. (2008). Hospital admissions with head injury following publication of NICE guidance. Emerg Med, 25(9), 556-557.

Gray, D. S., & Burnham, R. S. (2000). Preliminary outcome analysis of a long-term rehabilitation program for severe acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 81(11), 1447-1456.

Griesdale, D. E., Örtenwall, V., Norena, M., Wong, H., Sekhon, M. S., Kolmodin, L., . . . Dodek, P. (2015). Adherence to guidelines for management of cerebral perfusion pressure and outcome in patients who have severe traumatic brain injury. J Crit Care, 30(1), 111-115.

Harradine, P. G., Winstanley, J. B., Tate, R., Cameron, I. D., Baguley, I. J., & Harris, R. D. (2004). Severe traumatic brain injury in New South Wales: comparable outcomes for rural and urban residents. Med J Aust, 181(3), 130-135.

Harrington, D. T., Connolly, M., Biffl, W. L., Majercik, S. D., & Cioffi, W. G. (2005). Transfer times to definitive care facilities are too long: a consequence of an immature trauma system. Ann Surg, 241(6), 961.

Harris, O. A., Bruce, C. A., Reid, M., Cheeks, R., Easley, K., Surles, M. C., . . . Crandon, I. (2008). Examination of the management of traumatic brain injury in the developing and developed world: focus on resource utilization, protocols, and practices that alter outcome. J Neurosurg, 109(3), 433-438.

Hassett, L. M., Moseley, A. M., Tate, R. L., Harmer, A. R., Fairbairn, T. J., & Leung, J. (2009). Efficacy of a fitness centre-based exercise programme compared with a home-based exercise programme in traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil Med, 41(4), 247-255.

Hawkins, M., Lewis, F., & Medeiros, R. (2005). Impact of length of stay on functional outcomes of TBI patients. Am Surg, 71(11), 920-930.

Hayden, M. E., Plenger, P., Bison, K., Kowalske, K., Masel, B., & Qualls, D. (2013). Treatment effect versus pretreatment recovery in persons with traumatic brain injury: a study regarding the effectiveness of postacute rehabilitation. PM & R, 5, 319-327.

Heinemann AW, S. V., Cichowski K, Tuel SM, Betts HB. (1990). Functional outcome following traumatic brain injury rehabilitation: Translating research into policy. J Neuro Rehabil, 4, 27-37.

Hesdorffer, D. C., & Ghajar, J. (2007). Marked improvement in adherence to traumatic brain injury guidelines in United States trauma centers. J Trauma, 63(4), 841-848.

Hibbard, M. R., Cantor, J., Charatz, H., Rosenthal, R., Ashman, T., Gundersen, N., . . . Gartner, A. (2002). Peer support in the community: initial findings of a mentoring program for individuals with traumatic brain injury and their families. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 17(2), 112-131.

High Jr, W. M., Roebuck-Spencer, T., Sander, A. M., Struchen, M. A., & Sherer, M. (2006). Early versus later admission to postacute rehabilitation: Impact on functional outcome after traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87(3), 334-342.

Hyder, A. A., Wunderlich, C. A., Puvanachandra, P., Gururaj, G., & Kobusingye, O. C. (2007). The impact of traumatic brain injuries: a global perspective. NeuroRehabil, 22(5), 341-353.

International Brain Injury Association. (2008). International Brain Injury Association from

Jeyaraj, J. A., Clendenning, A., Bellemare-Lapierre, V., Iqbal, S., Lemoine, M.-C., Edwards, D., & Korner-Bitensky, N. (2013). Clinicians’ perceptions of factors contributing to complexity and intensity of care of outpatients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 27(12), 1338-1347.

Johnstone, B., Schopp, L. H., Harper, J., & Koscuilek, J. (1999). Neuropsychological impairments, vocational outcomes, and financial costs for individuals with traumatic brain injury receiving state vocational rehabilitation services. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 14(3), 220-232.

Jourdan, C., Bayen, E., Bosserelle, V., Azerad, S., Genet, F., Fermanian, C., . . . Azouvi, P. (2013). Referral to rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: Results from the PariS-TBI study. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 27(1), 35-44.

Kennedy, N., Barnes, J., Rose, A., & Veitch, C. (2012). Clinicians' expectations and early experiences of a new comprehensive rehabilitation case management model in a specialist brain injury rehabilitation unit. Brain Impair, 13(1), 62-71.

Kesinger, M. R., Nagy, L. R., Sequeira, D. J., Charry, J. D., Puyana, J. C., & Rubiano, A. M. (2014). A standardized trauma care protocol decreased in-hospital mortality of patients with severe traumatic brain injury at a teaching hospital in a middle-income country. Injury, 45(9), 1350-1354.

Khan, S., Khan, A., & Feyz, M. (2002). Decreased length of stay, cost savings and descriptive findings of enhanced patient care resulting from an integrated traumatic brain injury programme. Brain Inj, 16(6), 537-554.

Kim, H., & Colantonio, A. (2013). An examination of discharge against medical advice from brain injury inpatient rehabilitation. Brain Inj, 27(3), 325-331.

Kim, H., Colantonio, A., Deber, R., & Vernich, L. (2006). Discharge destination from acute care after traumatic brain injury. Can J Neurol Sci, 33(1), 48-52.

Klonoff, P. S., Lamb, D. G., Henderson, S. W., & Shepherd, J. (1998). Outcome assessment after milieu-oriented rehabilitation: New considerations. Arch Phys Medicine Rehabil, 79(6), 684-690.

Klonoff, P. S., Watt, L. M., Dawson, L. K., Henderson, S. W., Gehrels, J.-A., & Wethe, J. V. (2006). Psychosocial outcomes 1-7 years after comprehensive milieu-oriented neurorehabilitation: The role of pre-injury status. Brain Inj, 20(6), 601-612.

Kramer, A. H., & Zygun, D. A. (2013). Declining mortality in neurocritical care patients: A cohort study in Southern Alberta over eleven years. Can J Anesth, 60(10), 966-975.

Kunik, C. L., Flowers, L., & Kazanjian, T. (2006). Time to rehabilitation admission and associated outcomes for patients with traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87(12), 1590-1596.

Lazaridis, C., Yang, M., DeSantis, S. M., Luo, S. T., & Robertson, C. S. (2015). Predictors of intensive care unit length of stay and intracranial pressure in severe traumatic brain injury. J Crit Care, 30, 1258-1262.

Leith, K. H., Phillips, L., & Sample, P. L. (2004). Exploring the service needs and experiences of persons with TBI and their families: the South Carolina experience. Brain Inj, 18(12), 1191-1208.

León-Carrión, J., MacHuca-Murga, F., Solís-Marcos, I., León-Domínguez, U., & Domínguez-Morales, M. D. R. (2013). The sooner patients begin neurorehabilitation, the better their functional outcome. Brain Inj, 27(10), 1119-1123.

Lesko, M. M., Jenks, T., Perel, P., O’Brien, S., Childs, C., Bouamra, O., & Lecky, F. (2013). Models of mortality probability in severe traumatic brain injury: Results of the modelling by the UK trauma registry. J Neurotrauma, 30(24), 2021-2030.

Maas, A., Dearden, M., Teasdale, G., Braakman, R., Cohadon, F., Iannotti, F., . . . Ohman, J. (1997). EBIC-guidelines for management of severe head injury in adults. Acta Neurochir, 139(4), 286-294.

Mackay, L., Bernstein, B., Chapman, P., Morgan, A., & Milazzo, L. (1992). Early intervention in severe head injury: long-term benefits of a formalized program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 73(7), 635-641.

MacKenzie, E. J., Rivara, F. P., Jurkovich, G. J., Nathens, A. B., Frey, K. P., Egleston, B. L., . . . Scharfstein, D. O. (2007). The national study on costs and outcomes of trauma. J Trauma, 63(6), S54-S67.

Malec, J. F. (2001). Impact of comprehensive day treatment on societal participation for persons with acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 82(7), 885-895.

Malec, J. F., & Degiorgio, L. (2002). Characteristics of successful and unsuccessful completers of 3 postacute brain injury rehabilitation pathways. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 83(12), 1759-1764.

Malec, J. F., & Moessner, A. M. (2000). Self-awareness, distress, and postacute rehabilitation outcome. Rehabil Psychol, 45(3), 227.

March, E., Salzberg, M., & Hopwood, M. (2013). Acquired brain injury needs to be acknowledged at the national mental health policy level. Aust NZ J Psychiatry, 47(3), 212-216.

Martelli, M. F., Zasler, N. D., & Tiernan, P. (2012). Community based rehabilitation: Special issues. NeuroRehabil, 31(1), 3-18.

Matta, B., & Menon, D. (1996). Severe head injury in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A survey of practice and implications for management. Crit Care Med, 24(10), 1743-1748.

Mazaux, J., & Richer, E. (1998). Rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury in adults. Disabil Rehabil, 20(12), 435-447.

McGarry, L. J., Thompson, D., Millham, F. H., Cowell, L., Snyder, P. J., Lenderking, W. R., & Weinstein, M. C. (2002). Outcomes and costs of acute treatment of traumatic brain injury. J Trauma, 53(6), 1152-1159.

McLaughlin, A. M., & Peters, S. (1993). Evaluation of an innovative cost-effective programme for brain injury patients: response to a need for flexible treatment planning. Brain Inj, 7(1), 71-75.

McLaughlin, A. M., & Peters, S. (1993). Evaluation of an innovative cost-effective programme for brain injury patients: response to a need for flexible treatment planning. Brain Inj, 7(1), 71-75.

Mejaddam, A. Y., Elmer, J., Sideris, A. C., Chang, Y., Petrovick, L., Alam, H. B., & Fagenholz, P. J. (2013). Prolonged emergency department length of stay is not associated with worse outcomes in traumatic brain injury. J Emerg Med, 45, 384-391.

Mitchell, E.J., Veitch, C., Passey, M. (2014). Efficacy of leisure intervention groups in rehabilitation of people with an acquired brain injury, Disabil Rehabil, 36 1474-1482.

Moseley, A. M., Herbert, R. D., Sherrington, C., & Maher, C. G. (2002). Evidence for physiotherapy practice: a survey of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Aust J Physiother, 48(1), 43-49.

Muehlschlegel, S., Carandang, R., Ouillette, C., Hall, W., Andersten, F., Goldberg, R. (2013). Frequency and impact of intensive care unit complications on moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: Early results of the outcome prognostication in traumatic brain injury (OPTIMISM) study, Neurocrit Care, 18(3), 318-331.

Munce, S. E. P., Laan, R. V., Levy, C., Parsons, D., & Jaglal, S. B. (2014). Systems analysis of community and health services for acquired brain injury in Ontario, Canada. Brain Inj, 28(8), 1042-1051.

Myburgh, J. A., Cooper, D. J., Finfer, S. R., Venkatesh, B., Jones, D., Higgins, A., . . . Australasian Traumatic Brain Injury Study Investigators. (2008). Epidemiology and 12-month outcomes from traumatic brain injury in Australia and New Zealand. J Trauma, 64(4), 854-862.

National Association of State Head Injury Administrators. (2008 ). National Association of State Head Injury Administrators. . from

National Data and Statistical Center. (2008). The Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems of Care from

National Institute of Health. (1998). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. Bethesda, MA: NIH.

New Zealand Guidelines Group. (2006). Traumatic Brain Injury: Diagnosis, Acute Management and Rehabilitation. Wellington, NZ. New Zealand Guideline Group.

O'Dell, M. W., Barr, K., Spanier, D., & Warnick, R. E. (1998). Functional outcome of inpatient rehabilitation in persons with brain tumors. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 79(12), 1530-1534.

Olesen, J., & Freund, T. F. (2006). European Brain Council: partnership to promote European and national brain research. Trends Neurosci, 29(9), 493-495.

Olver, J. H., Ponsford, J., & Curran, C. (1996). Outcome following traumatic brain injury: a comparison between 2 and 5 years after injury. Brain Inj, 10(11), 841-848.

Ownsworth, T., Fleming, J., Shum, D., Kuipers, P., & Strong, J. (2008). Comparison of individual, group and combined intervention formats in a randomized controlled trial for facilitating goal attainment and improving psychosocial function following acquired brain injury. J Rehabil Med, 40(2), 81-88.

Ownsworth, T. L., McFarland, K., & Mc Young, R. (2000). Self-awareness and psychosocial functioning following acquired brain injury: An evaluation of a group support programme. Neuropsychol Rehabil, 10(5), 465-484.

Palmer, S., Bader, M. K., Qureshi, A., Palmer, J., Shaver, T., Borzatta, M., & Stalcup, C. (2001). The impact on outcomes in a community hospital setting of using the AANS traumatic brain injury guidelines. J Trauma Acute Care Surg, 50(4), 657-664.

Peirone, E., Goria, P. F., & Anselmino, A. (2014). A dual-task home-based rehabilitation programme for improving balance control in patients with acquired brain injury: A single-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Clin Rehabil, 28(4), 329-338.

Ponsford, J., Harrington, H., Olver, J., & Roper, M. (2006). Evaluation of a community-based model of rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil, 16(3), 315-328.

Powell, J., Heslin, J., & Greenwood, R. (2002). Community based rehabilitation after severe traumatic brain injury: a randomised controlled trial. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 72(2), 193-202.

Rapport, L. J., Bryer, R. C., & Hanks, R. A. (2008). Driving and Community Integration After Traumatic Brain Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 89(5), 922-930.

Reid-Arndt, S. A., Frank, R. G., & Hagglund, K. J. (2010). Brain injury and health policy: Twenty-five years of progress. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 25(2), 137-144.

Rusnak, M., Janciak, I., Majdan, M., Wilbacher, I., & Mauritz, W. (2007). Severe traumatic brain injury in Austria I: Introduction to the study. Wien Klin Wochenschr, 119(1-2), 23-28.

Saatman, K. E., Duhaime, A.-C., Bullock, R., Maas, A. I., Valadka, A., & Manley, G. T. (2008). Classification of traumatic brain injury for targeted therapies. J Neurotrauma, 25(7), 719-738.

Sahgal, V., & Heinemann, A. (1989). Recovery of function during inpatient rehabilitation for moderate traumatic brain injury. Scand J Rehabil Med, 21(2), 71-79.

Sample, P. L., & Langlois, J. A. (2005). Linking people with traumatic brain injury to services: Successes and challenges in Colorado. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 20(3), 270-278.

Sandhaug, M., Andelic, N., Vatne, A., Seiler, S., & Mygland, A. (2010). Functional level during sub-acute rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: Course and predictors of outcome. Brain Inj, 24(5), 740-747.

Schirmer-Mikalsen, K., Moen, K. G., Skandsen, T., Vik, A., & Klepstad, P. (2013). Intensive care and traumatic brain injury after the introduction of a treatment protocol: A prospective study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 57(1), 46-55.

Semlyen, J. K., Summers, S. J., & Barnes, M. P. (1998). Traumatic brain injury: Efficacy of multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 79(6), 678-683.

Shafi, S., Barnes, S. A., Millar, D., Sobrino, J., Kudyakov, R., Berryman, C., . . . Nirula, R. (2014). Suboptimal compliance with evidence-based guidelines in patients with traumatic brain injuries: Clinical article. J  Neurosurg, 120(3), 773-777.

Shiel, A., Burn, J. P., Henry, D., Clark, J., Wilson, B., Burnett, M., & McLellan, D. (2001). The effects of increased rehabilitation therapy after brain injury: results of a prospective controlled trial. Clin Rehabil, 15(5), 501-514.

Shigemori, M., & Tokutomi, T. (2002). Result of nationwide survey of the management of severe head injury in Japan. Neurol Res, 24(1), 41-44.

Spivack, G., Spettell, C. M., Ellis, D. W., & Ross, S. E. (1992). Effects of intensity of treatment and length of stay on rehabilitation outcomes. Brain Inj, 6(5), 419-434.

Straits-Troster, K., Gierisch, J. M., Strauss, J. L., Dyck, D. G., Dixon, L. B., Norell, D., & Perlick, D. A. (2013). Multifamily group treatment for veterans with traumatic brain injury: What is the value to participants? Psychiatr Serv, 64(6), 541-546.

Talbot, L. R., Lévesque, A., & Trottier, J. (2014). Process of implementing collaborative care and its impacts on the provision of care and rehabilitation services to patients with a moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. J Multidiscip Healthc, 7, 313-320.

Talving, P., Karamanos, E., Teixeira, P. G., Skiada, D., Lam, L., Belzberg, H., . . . Demetriades, D. (2013). Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe head injury: Compliance with Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines and effect on outcomes: A prospective study. J Neurosurg, 119(5), 1248-1254.

Talving, P., Karamanos, E., Teixeira, P. G., Skiada, D., Lam, L., Belzberg, H., . . . Demetriades, D. (2013). Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe head injury: compliance with Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines and effect on outcomes: a prospective study: Clinical article. J Neurosurg, 119(5), 1248-1254.

Teasdale, G., Braakman, R., Cohadon, F., Dearden, M., Iannotti, F., Karimi, A., . . . Ohman, J. (1997). The European brain injury consortium. Acta Neurochir, 139(9), 797-803.

Tobi, K.U., Azeez, A.L., Agbedia, S.O. (2016). Outcome of traumatic brain injury in the intensive care unit: A five-year review. Southern African Journal of Anesthesia and Analgesia, 22(5), 135-139.

Tuel, S. M., Presty, S. K., Meythaler, J. M., Heinemann, A. W., & Katz, R. T. (1992). Functional improvement in severe head injury after readmission for rehabilitation. Brain Inj, 6(4), 363-372.

Turner, B., Fleming, J., Cornwell, P., Haines, T., & Ownsworth, T. (2009). Profiling early outcomes during the transition from hospital to home after brain injury. Brain Inj, 23(1), 51-60.

Twamley, E. W., Jak, A. J., Delis, D. C., Bondi, M. W., & Lohr, J. B. (2014). Cognitive Symptom Management and Rehabilitation Therapy (CogSMART) for Veterans with traumatic brain injury: Pilot randomized controlled trial. J Rehabil ResDev, 51(1), 59-69.

Tyerman, A. (2012). Vocational rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: Models and services. NeuroRehabilitation, 31(1), 51-62.

Wagner, A. K., Fabio, T., Zafonte, R. D., Goldberg, G., Marion, D. W., & Peitzman, A. B. (2003). Physical medicine and rehabilitation consultation: relationships with acute functional outcome, length of stay, and discharge planning after traumatic brain injury. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 82(7), 526-536.

Watanabe, S. (2013). Vocational rehabilitation for clients with cognitive and behavioral disorders associated with traumatic brain injury. Work, 45(2), 273-277.

Webb, P. M., & Glueckauf, R. L. (1994). The effects of direct involvement in goal setting on rehabilitation outcome for persons with traumatic brain injuries. Rehabil Psychol, 39(3), 179.

Wehman, P., Kreutzer, J., West, M., Sherron, P., Diambra, J., Fry, R., . . . Killam, S. (1989). Employment outcomes of persons following traumatic brain injury: Pre-injury, post-injury, and supported employment. Brain Inj, 3(4), 397-412.

Wehman, P., Kreutzer, J., West, M., Sherron, P., Zasler, N., Groah, C., . . . Sale, P. (1990). Return to work for persons with traumatic brain injury: a supported employment approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 71(13), 1047-1052.

Whitlock Jr, J. A. (1992). Functional outcome of low-level traumatically brain-injured admitted to an acute rehabilitation programme. Brain Inj, 6(5), 447-459.

Whitlock Jr, J. A., & Hamilton, B. B. (1995). Functional outcome after rehabilitation for severe traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 76(12), 1103-1112.

Willer, B., Button, J., & Rempel, R. (1999). Residential and home-based postacute rehabilitation of individuals with traumatic brain injury: a case control study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 80(4), 399-406.

Wood, R. L., McCrea, J., Wood, L., & Merriman, R. (1999). Clinical and cost effectiveness of post-acute neurobehavioural rehabilitation. Brain Inj, 13(2), 69-88.

Zasler, N., Katz, D., & Zafonte, R. D. (2007). Brain injury medicine: Principles and practice. New York: Demos Medical Publishing.

Zhu, X. L., Poon, W. S., Chan, C. H., & Chan, S. H. (2001). Does intensive rehabilitation improve the functional outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury? Interim result of a randomized controlled trial. Br J Neurosurg, 15(6), 464-473.

Zygun, D. A., Laupland, K. B., Hader, W. J., Kortbeek, J. B., Findlay, C., Doig, C. J., & Hameed, S. M. (2005). Severe traumatic brain injury in a large Canadian health region. Can J Neurol Sci, 32(1), 87-92.