References

 

Aarabi, B., Hesdorffer, D. C., Ahn, E. S., Aresco, C., Scalea, T. M., & Eisenberg, H. M. (2006). Outcome following decompressive craniectomy for malignant swelling due to severe head injury. J Neurosurg, 104(4), 469-479.

Aharon-Peretz, J., Kliot, D., Amyel-Zvi, E., Tomer, R., Rakier, A., & Feinsod, M. (1997). Neurobehavioral consequences of closed head injury in the elderly. Brain Inj, 11(12), 871-875.

Alberico, A. M., Ward, J. D., Choi, S. C., Marmarou, A., & Young, H. F. (1987). Outcome after severe head injury. Relationship to mass lesions, diffuse injury, and ICP course in pediatric and adult patients. J Neurosurg, 67(5), 648-656.

Bigler, E. D., Rosa, L., Schultz, F., Hall, S., & Harris, J. (1989). Rey-Auditory Verbal Learning and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Design performance in Alzheimer's disease and closed head injury. J Clin Psychol, 45(2), 277-280.

Blacker, D., Lee, H., Muzikansky, A., Martin, E. C., Tanzi, R., McArdle, J. J., . . . Albert, M. (2007). Neuropsychological measures in normal individuals that predict subsequent cognitive decline. Arch Neurol, 64(6), 862-871.

Born, J. D., Albert, A., Hans, P., & Bonnal, J. (1985). Relative prognostic value of best motor response and brain stem reflexes in patients with severe head injury. Neurosurgery, 16(5), 595-601.

Bouras, T., Stranjalis, G., Korfias, S., Andrianakis, I., Pitaridis, M., & Sakas, D. E. (2007). Head injury mortality in a geriatric population: differentiating an "edge" age group with better potential for benefit than older poor-prognosis patients. J Neurotrauma, 24(8), 1355-1361.

Brazinova, A., Mauritz, W., Leitgeb, J., Wilbacher, I., Majdan, M., Janciak, I., & Rusnak, M. (2010). Outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury who have Glasgow Coma Scale scores of 3 or 4 and are over 65 years old. J Neurotrauma, 27(9), 1549-1555.

Canadian Institude for Health Information [CIHI]. (2006). Head injuries in Canada: A decade of change. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada: CIHI

Cekic, M., & Stein, D. G. (2010). Traumatic brain injury and aging: is a combination of progesterone and vitamin D hormone a simple solution to a complex problem? Neurotherapeutics, 7(1), 81-90.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP). (2007). Rates of hospitalization related to traumatic brain injury - Nine States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 56(8), 167-170.

Chambers, L., Bancej, C., McDowell, I., & Population Health Expert Panel. (2016). Prevalence and Monetary Costs of Dementia in Canada. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Alzheimer Society of Canada in collaboration with the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Cifu, D. X., Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Rosenthal, M., Englander, J., & High, W. (1996). Functional outcomes of older adults with traumatic brain injury: a prospective, multicenter analysis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77(9), 883-888.

Colantonio, A., Escobar, M. D., Chipman, M., McLellan, B., Austin, P. C., Mirabella, G., & Ratcliff, G. (2008). Predictors of postacute mortality following traumatic brain injury in a seriously injured population. J Trauma, 64(4), 876-882.

Colontonio, A., Parsons, D., Vander Laan, R., & Zagorski, B. (2009). TBI dataset pilot project phase 1 report. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation.

Comfort, A. (1964). Ageing, the biology of senescence. New York, NY: Elsevier.

Dikmen, S. S., Ross, B. L., Machamer, J. E., & Temkin, N. R. (1995). One year psychosocial outcome in head injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 1(1), 67-77.

Flanagan, S. R., Hibbard, M. R., Riordan, B., & Gordon, W. A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury in the elderly: diagnostic and treatment challenges. Clin Geriatr Med, 22(2), 449-468.

Fleminger, S., Oliver, D. L., Lovestone, S., Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Giora, A. (2003). Head injury as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: the evidence 10 years on; a partial replication. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 74(7), 857-862.

Frankel, J. E., Marwitz, J. H., Cifu, D. X., Kreutzer, J. S., Englander, J., & Rosenthal, M. (2006). A follow-up study of older adults with traumatic brain injury: taking into account decreasing length of stay. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 87(1), 57-62.

Friedman, G., Froom, P., Sazbon, L., Grinblatt, I., Shochina, M., Tsenter, J., . . . Groswasser, Z. (1999). Apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 genotype predicts a poor outcome in survivors of traumatic brain injury. Neurology, 52(2), 244-248.

Goldstein, F. C. (2005). Rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury. USA: Oxford University Press

Goldstein, F. C., & Levin, H. S. (1995). Neurobehavioral outcome of traumatic brain injury in older adults: Initial findings. J Head Trauma Rehab, 10(1), 57-73.

Goldstein, F. C., & Levin, H. S. (2001). Cognitive outcome after mild and moderate traumatic brain injury in older adults. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol, 23(6), 739-753.

Goldstein, F. C., Levin, H. S., Goldman, W. P., Kalechstein, A. D., Clark, A. N., & Kenehan-Altonen, T. (1999). Cognitive and behavioral sequelae of closed head injury in older adults according to their significant others. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci, 11(1), 38-44.

Goldstein, F. C., Levin, H. S., Roberts, V. J., Goldman, W. P., Kalechstein, A. S., Winslow, M., & Goldstein, S. J. (1996). Neuropsychological effects of closed head injury in older adults: A comparison with Alzheimer's disease. Neuropsychology, 10(2), 147-154.

Gomez, P. A., Lobato, R. D., Boto, G. R., De la Lama, A., Gonzalez, P. J., & de la Cruz, J. (2000). Age and outcome after severe head injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 142(4), 373-381.

Graham, J. E., Radice-Neumann, D. M., Reistetter, T. A., Hammond, F. M., Dijkers, M., & Granger, C. V. (2010). Influence of Sex and Age on Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes Among Older Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 91(1), 43-50.

Grant, P. T., Henry, J. M., & McNaughton, G. W. (2000). The management of elderly blunt trauma victims in Scotland: evidence of ageism? Injury, 31(7), 519-528.

Grossman, M. D., Miller, D., Scaff, D. W., & Arcona, S. (2002). When is an elder old? Effect of preexisting conditions on mortality in geriatric trauma. J Trauma, 52(2), 242-246.

Guo, Z., Cupples, L. A., Kurz, A., Auerbach, S. H., Volicer, L., Chui, H., . . . Farrer, L. A. (2000). Head injury and the risk of AD in the MIRAGE study. Neurology, 54(6), 1316-1323.

Gupta, A., & Ghai, D. (1991). Memory in head injured patients. Journal of Personality and Clinical Studies, 7(1), 55-61.

Hukkelhoven, C. W., Steyerberg, E. W., Rampen, A. J., Farace, E., Habbema, J. D., Marshall, L. F., . . . Maas, A. I. (2003). Patient age and outcome following severe traumatic brain injury: an analysis of 5600 patients. J Neurosurg, 99(4), 666-673.

Jamjoom, A. (1992). Justification for evacuating acute subdural haematomas in patients above the age of 75 years. Injury, 23(8), 518-520.

Jiang, J. Y., Xu, W., Li, W. P., Xu, W. H., Zhang, J., Bao, Y. H., . . . Luo, Q. Z. (2005). Efficacy of standard trauma craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension with severe traumatic brain injury: a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study. J Neurotrauma, 22(6), 623-628.

Jordan, B. D., Relkin, N. R., Ravdin, L. D., Jacobs, A. R., Bennett, A., & Gandy, S. (1997). Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. JAMA, 278(2), 136-140.

Kakarieka, A., Braakman, R., & Schakel, E. H. (1994). Clinical significance of the finding of subarachnoid blood on CT scan after head injury. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 129(1-2), 1-5.

Katz, D. I., & Alexander, M. P. (1994). Traumatic brain injury. Predicting course of recovery and outcome for patients admitted to rehabilitation. Arch Neurol, 51(7), 661-670.

Kersel, D. A., Marsh, N. V., Havill, J. H., & Sleigh, J. W. (2001). Neuropsychological functioning during the year following severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 15(4), 283-296.

Khan, S., Khan, A., & Feyz, M. (2002). Decreased Length of stay, cost savings and descriptive findings of enhanced patient care resulting from and integrated traumatic brain injury programme. Brain Inj, 16(6), 537-554.

Kilaru, S., Garb, J., Emhoff, T., Fiallo, V., Simon, B., Swiencicki, T., & Lee, K. F. (1996). Long-term functional status and mortality of elderly patients with severe closed head injuries. J Trauma, 41(6), 957-963.

Kim, H., Colantonio, A., Deber, R., & Vernich, L. (2006). Discharge destination from acute care after traumatic brain injury. Can J Neurol Sci, 33(1), 48-52.

Kotwica, Z., & Jakubowski, J. K. (1992). Acute head injuries in the elderly. An analysis of 136 consecutive patients. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 118(3-4), 98-102.

Kuhne, C. A., Ruchholtz, S., Kaiser, G. M., & Nast-Kolb, D. (2005). Mortality in severely injured elderly trauma patients-when does age become a risk factor? World J Surg, 29(11), 1476-1482.

Lane, P., Sorondo, B., & Kelly, J. J. (2003). Geriatric trauma patients-are they receiving trauma center care? Acad Emerg Med, 10(3), 244-250.

LeBlanc, J., de Guise, E., Gosselin, N., & Feyz, M. (2006). Comparison of functional outcome following acute care in young, middle-aged and elderly patients with traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj, 20(8), 779-790.

Levin, H. S., Goldstein, F. C., & MacKenzie, E. J. (1997). Depression as a Secondary Condition Following Mild and Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury. Semin Clin Neuropsychiatry, 2(3), 207-215.

Liaquat, I., Dunn, L. T., Nicoll, J. A., Teasdale, G. M., & Norrie, J. D. (2002). Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on hematoma volume after trauma. J Neurosurg, 96(1), 90-96.

Livingston, D. H., Lavery, R. F., Mosenthal, A. C., Knudson, M. M., Lee, S., Morabito, D., . . . Coimbra, R. (2005). Recovery at one year following isolated traumatic brain injury: a Western Trauma Association prospective multicenter trial. J Trauma, 59(6), 1298-1304; discussion 1304.

Lynch, J. R., Pineda, J. A., Morgan, D., Zhang, L., Warner, D. S., Benveniste, H., & Laskowitz, D. T. (2002). Apolipoprotein E affects the central nervous system response to injury and the development of cerebral edema. Ann Neurol, 51(1), 113-117.

Marquez de la Plata, C. D., Hart, T., Hammond, F. M., Frol, A. B., Hudak, A., Harper, C. R., . . . Diaz-Arrastia, R. (2008). Impact of age on long-term recovery from traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 89(5), 896-903.

Marxheimer, H. (1998). Subdural hematomas in victims with and without cerebral contusions - comparison of two types of head injuries. Rechtsmedizin, 9, 14-20.

Mayeux, R., Ottman, R., Maestre, G., Ngai, C., Tang, M. X., Ginsberg, H., . . . Shelanski, M. (1995). Synergistic effects of traumatic head injury and apolipoprotein-epsilon 4 in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Neurology, 45(3 Pt 1), 555-557.

Meier, U., Grawe, A., & Konig, A. (2005). The importance of major extracranial injuries by the decompressive craniectomy in severe head injuries. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 95, 55-57.

Meier, U., Lemcke, J., Reyer, T., & Grawe, A. (2006). Decompressive craniectomy for severe head injury in patients with major extracranial injuries. Acta Neurochir Suppl, 96, 373-376.

Mitra, B., Cameron, P. A., Gabbe, B. J., Rosenfeld, J. V., & Kavar, B. (2008). Management and hospital outcome of the severly head injured elderly patient. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 78(7), 588-592.

Mohindra, S., Mukherjee, K. K., Gupta, R., & Chhabra, R. (2008). Continuation of poor surgical outcome after elderly brain injury. Surg Neurol, 69(5), 474-477.

Mortimer, J. A., van Duijn, C. M., Chandra, V., Fratiglioni, L., Graves, A. B., Heyman, A., . . . et al. (1991). Head trauma as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int J Epidemiol, 20(Suppl 2), S28-35.

Mosenthal, A. C., Lavery, R. F., Addis, M., Kaul, S., Ross, S., Marburger, R., . . . Livingston, D. H. (2002). Isolated traumatic brain injury: age is an independent predictor of mortality and early outcome. J Trauma, 52(5), 907-911.

National Institutes of Health. (1998). Rehabilitation of persons with traumatic brain injury. NIH Consensus Statement, 16(1), 1-41.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. (2002). Traumatic brain injury: Hope through research. Bethesda, Maryland: National Institutes of Health.

Nicoll, J. A., Roberts, G. W., & Graham, D. I. (1996). Amyloid beta-protein, APOE genotype and head injury. Ann N Y Acad Sci, 777, 271-275.

Oddy, M., Humphrey, M., & Uttley, D. (1978). Subjective impairment and social recovery after closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 41(7), 611-616.

Patel, H. C., Bouamra, O., Woodford, M., Yates, D. W., & Lecky, F. E. (2010). Clinical article: mortality associated with severe head injury in the elderly. Acta Neurochir (Wien), 152(8), 1353-1357.

Pennings, J. L., Bachulis, B. L., Simons, C. T., & Slazinski, T. (1993). Survival after severe brain injury in the aged. Arch Surg, 128(7), 787-794.

Pentland, B., Jones, P. A., Roy, C. W., & Miller, J. D. (1986). Head injury in the elderly. Age Ageing, 15(4), 193-202.

Plassman, B. L., Havlik, R. J., Steffens, D. C., Helms, M. J., Newman, T. N., Drosdick, D., . . . Breitner, J. C. (2000). Documented head injury in early adulthood and risk of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. Neurology, 55(8), 1158-1166.

Ramage-Morin, P. L. (2008). Motor vehicle accident deaths, 1979 to 2004. Health Rep, 19(3), 45-51.

Rao, G. S. (2007). Cerebral perfusion pressure based management of traumatic brain injury. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology, 12(1), 11.

Ratcliff, G., Colantonio, A., Escobar, M., Chase, S., & Vernich, L. (2005). Long-term survival following traumatic brain injury. Disabil Rehabil, 27(6), 305-314.

Reeder, K. P., Rosenthal, M., Lichtenberg, P., & Wood, D. (1996). Impact of Age on Functional Outcome Following Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 11(3), 22-31.

Ritchie, P. D., Cameron, P. A., Ugoni, A. M., & Kaye, A. H. (2000). A study of the functional outcome and mortality in elderly patients with head injuries. J Clin Neurosci, 7(4), 301-304.

Roberts, G. W., Gentleman, S. M., Lynch, A., & Graham, D. I. (1991). beta A4 amyloid protein deposition in brain after head trauma. Lancet, 338(8780), 1422-1423.

Ross, A. M., Pitts, L. H., & Kobayashi, S. (1992). Prognosticators of outcome after major head injury in the elderly. J Neurosci Nurs, 24(2), 88-93.

Rothweiler, B., Temkin, N. R., & Dikmen, S. S. (1998). Aging effect on psychosocial outcome in traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 79(8), 881-887.

Scherer, T. (2000). Community reintegration. In B. H. Woo & S. Nesathurai (Eds.), The rehabilitation of people with traumatic brain injury. (pp. 1110-1113). Malden, MA: Blackwell Science

Selassie, A. W., McCarthy, M. L., Ferguson, P. L., Tian, J., & Langlois, J. A. (2005). Risk of posthospitalization mortality among persons with traumatic brain injury, South Carolina 1999-2001. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 20(3), 257-269.

Skoglund, T. S., & Nellgard, B. (2005). Long-time outcome after transient transtentorial herniation in patients with traumatic brain injury. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand, 49(3), 337-340.

Spaniolas, K., Cheng, J. D., Gestring, M. L., Sangosanya, A., Stassen, N. A., & Bankey, P. E. (2010). Ground level falls are associated with significant mortality in elderly patients. J Trauma, 69(4), 821-825.

Starkstein, S. E., & Jorge, R. (2005). Dementia after traumatic brain injury. Int Psychogeriatr, 17(Suppl 1), S93-107.

Susman, M., DiRusso, S. M., Sullivan, T., Risucci, D., Nealon, P., Cuff, S., . . . Benzil, D. (2002). Traumatic brain injury in the elderly: increased mortality and worse functional outcome at discharge despite lower injury severity. J Trauma, 53(2), 219-223.

Swan, G. E., Lessov-Schlaggar, C. N., Carmelli, D., Schellenberg, G. D., & La Rue, A. (2005). Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 and change in cognitive functioning in community-dwelling older adults. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol, 18(4), 196-201.

Teasdale, G. M., Nicoll, J. A., Murray, G., & Fiddes, M. (1997). Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with outcome after head injury. Lancet, 350(9084), 1069-1071.

Teno, J., Kiel, D. P., & Mor, V. (1990). Multiple stumbles: a risk factor for falls in community-dwelling elderly. A prospective study. J Am Geriatr Soc, 38(12), 1321-1325.

Thompson, H. J., McCormick, W. C., & Kagan, S. H. (2006). Traumatic brain injury in older adults: epidemiology, outcomes, and future implications. J Am Geriatr Soc, 54(10), 1590-1595.

Thompson, H. J., Rivara, F. P., Jurkovich, G. J., Wang, J., Nathens, A. B., & MacKenzie, E. J. (2008). Evaluation of the effect of intensity of care on mortality after traumatic brain injury. Crit Care Med, 36(1), 282-290.

Tieves, K. S., Yang, H., & Layde, P. M. (2005). The epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Wisconsin, 2001. Wmj, 104(2), 22-25, 54.

Tokutomi, T., Miyagi, T., Ogawa, T., Ono, J., Kawamata, T., Sakamoto, T., . . . Nakamura, N. (2008). Age-associated increases in poor outcomes after traumatic brain injury: a report from the Japan Neurotrauma Data Bank. J Neurotrauma, 25(12), 1407-1414.

Ucar, T., Akyuz, M., Kazan, S., & Tuncer, R. (2005). Role of decompressive surgery in the management of severe head injuries: prognostic factors and patient selection. J Neurotrauma, 22(11), 1311-1318.

Uomoto, J. M. (2008). Older adults and neuropsychological rehabilitation following acquired brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation, 23(5), 415-424.

Utomo, W. K., Gabbe, B. J., Simpson, P. M., & Cameron, P. A. (2009). Predictors of in-hospital mortality and 6-month functional outcomes in older adults after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Injury, 40(9), 973-977.

van Duijn, C. M., Tanja, T. A., Haaxma, R., Schulte, W., Saan, R. J., Lameris, A. J., . . . Hofman, A. (1992). Head trauma and the risk of Alzheimer's disease. Am J Epidemiol, 135(7), 775-782.

Vollmer, D. G., Torner, J. C., Jane, J. A., Sadovnic, B., Charlebois, D., Eisenberg, H., . . . Marshall, L. F. (1991). Age and outcome following traumatic coma: why do older patients fare worse? . J Neurosurg, 75(1s), s37-s39.

Whelan-Goodinson, R., Ponsford, J. L., Schönberger, M., & Johnston, L. (2010). Predictors of Psychiatric Disorders Following Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil, 25(5), 320-329.

Zietlow, S. P., Capizzi, P. J., Bannon, M. P., & Farnell, M. B. (1994). Multisystem geriatric trauma. J Trauma, 37(6), 985-988.

Zygun, D. A., Laupland, K. B., Hader, W. J., Kortbeek, J. B., Findlay, C., Doig, C. J., & Hameed, S. M. (2005). Severe traumatic brain injury in a large Canadian health region. Can J Neurol Sci, 32(1), 87-92.