Section 03. Motor and Sensory Dysfunction

The primary cause of motor impairment and movement dysfunction post acquired brain injury (ABI) is upper motor neuron syndrome (UMNS). The former results in both positive symptoms of enhanced stretch reflexes (spasticity), released flexor reflexes in the lower limbs, such as the Babinski sign and mass synergy patterns, as well as negative symptoms including loss of dexterity and weakness (Mayer 1997).These symptoms of UMNS have physiologic implications for muscles that may subsequently develop stiffness and contracture, thereby negatively affecting effective movement even further (Mayer 1997).