Summary

  1. There is conflicting evidence that sertraline is effective in the treatment of major depression post-traumatic brain injury.
     
  2. There is Level 2 evidence that citalopram aids in the reduction of depression post-acquired brain injury.
     
  3. There is Level 4 evidence that citalopram and carbamazepine may be efficacious in the treatment of depression, anxiety and mood disorders.
     
  4. There is Level 2 evidence to suggest that the administration of desipramine assists in improving mood and reducing depression.
     
  5. There is Level 1a evidence that individuals with a traumatic brain injury who participate in exercise programs report feeling less depressed and report experiencing greater quality of life post injury.
     
  6. There is Level 1b evidence that mindfulness-based stress reduction programmes may be efficacious in reducing depressed mood.
     
  7. There is Level 3 evidence that music therapy does improve depression and anxiety post-acquired brain injury.
     
  8. There is Level 4 evidence that Systematic Motivational Counselling may reduce negative affect.
     
  9. There is Level 1b evidence that both Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and supportive psychotherapy may decrease symptoms associated with depression.
     
  10. There is Level 2 evidence that positive psychology, involving patients writing down things they enjoy, is beneficial in improving happiness scores.
     
  11. There is Level 4 evidence that rehabilitation decreases self-reported depression scores.
     
  12. There is Level 1b evidence that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy does reduce anxiety post-acquired brain injury.
     
  13. There is Level 1b evidence that reducing hopelessness post-traumatic brain injury may be effective at decreasing suicidal ideation.
     
  14. There is conflicting evidence of the effects of Amantadine on reducing irritability and aggression in individuals with moderate-severe traumatic brain injury.
     
  15. There is Level 4 evidence that carbamazepine decreases the incidence of aggressive behaviours following a traumatic brain injury.
     
  16. There is Level 5 evidence to suggest that lamotrigine helps to reduce inappropriate behaviours post-traumatic brain injury.
     
  17. There is Level 5 evidence that valproic acid decreases the incidence of aggressive behaviours.
     
  18. There is Level 4 evidence that divalproex decreases the incidence of agitation post-traumatic brain injury.
     
  19. There is Level 4 evidence that sertraline HCl can decrease the incidence of aggression and irritability.
     
  20. There is Level 4 evidence that amitriptyline may be useful in reducing the incidence of agitated behaviour.
     
  21. There is Level 1b evidence that prindolol decreases aggression following brain injury based on one random control trial.
     
  22. There is Level 1b evidence that propranolol reduces the intensity of agitated symptoms following brain injury.
     
  23. There is Level 4 evidence (from one small study) to suggest that quetiapine helps reduce aggressive behaviour.
     
  24. There is Level 4 evidence from one study to suggest that ziprasidone assists in the controlling of agitation post-traumatic brain injury.
     
  25. There is Level 5 evidence to suggest that an antimanic agent (lithium carbonate) reduces aggressive/agitated behaviour following a brain injury.
     
  26. There is Level 4 evidence that Depo-Provera and counselling reduces sexually aggressive behaviour
     
  27. There is Level 4 evidence that methotrimeprazine is safe and effective for controlling agitation after an acquired brain injury.
     
  28. There is Level 2 evidence (from one random control trial) to suggest that treatment with methylphenidate following brain injury can significantly reduce anger.
     
  29. There is Level 4 evidence that administration of a single-dose of droperidol calms agitated patients with acquired brain injuries more quickly than other agents.
     
  30. There is Level 4 evidence that haloperidol does not have a negative effect on the success of rehabilitation.
     
  31. There is Level 4 evidence to suggest that anger self-management training is effective in reducing irritability and anger after a traumatic brain injury.
     
  32. There is Level 4 evidence that behavioural approach using antecedent management and/or feedback of consequences reduces undesirable behaviour (eg. aggression/agitation).
     
  33. There is Level 1b evidence that social skills training has a limited impact on changing inappropriate behaviours and mood disturbances of those who have sustained a severe traumatic brain injury.
     
  34. There is Level 2 evidence that community based program combining education and an individualized behaviour plan (e.g. Natural Setting Behaviour Management intervention) helps to change behaviour.
     
  35. There is Level 2 evidence that participating in a Coping Skills Group assists in improving adaptive coping in the long term.
     
  36. There is Level 2 evidence that anger management reduces aggressive behaviour.
     
  37. There is Level 4 evidence that music therapy reduces psychomotor agitation post coma following a severe traumatic brain injury in a slow-to-recover group.
     
  38. There is Level 2 evidence suggesting that neither education nor motivational interviewing has a significant impact on excessive alcohol consumption post-traumatic brain injury.
     
  39. There is Level 2 evidence supporting the use of financial incentives to encourage participants to continue with their substance addiction therapy following an acquired brain injury; however addressing the barriers preventing individuals from attending was not found to be successful.