Hansen et al.
Population: Severe TBI; Median Age=35yr; Median GCS Score=11.
Treatment: Chart review of patients admitted to a subacute rehabilitation facility. All patients had a mouth exam and a clinical examination of swallowing done.
Outcome Measure: Diagnosis of pneumonia, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), GCS, Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM).
- At admission, 27% had pneumonia and 12% developed pneumonia while on the unit.
- Of those 21 who had pneumonia on the unit, 81% (17) were totally dependent on tube feeding.
- Patients admitted with a low GCS (<9) were at a higher risk (25%) of developing pneumonia compared to GCS 9-12 (13%) and GCS>12 (2%).
- 23% of patients with a lower RLAS score developed pneumonia.
- Overall, differences in risk of pneumonia among groups was significant for GCS, RLAS and FOIS scores (p<0.01).
- Pneumonia developed in 18% of patients with low functional ability (FIM <19).