Key Points

  • The pathology of heterotopic ossification is not fully understood.
     
  • The hips, shoulders and elbows are most commonly affected by heterotopic ossification.
     
  • Clinical features include warm, swollen, painful joint with some restriction of range of motion.
     
  • Forceful joint manipulation increases range of motion in heterotopic ossification.
     
  • Careful use of physiotherapy with assisted range of motion exercises and gentle stretching are beneficial for heterotopic ossification
     
  • Continuous passive range of motion devices may increase range of motion.
     
  • Disodium Etidronate prevents the development of heterotopic ossification
     
  • Surgical excision of heterotopic ossification improves range of motion.
  • SCDs alone do not reduce the risk of developing DVT or PE post ABI
     
  • Intermittent compression devices do not aggravate intracranial hemodynamics in severe ABI patients.
     
  • Although the administration of chemical deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis within the first 72 hours post ABI has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of developing DVT or PE without increasing the risk of intracranial bleeding, more research is needed to determine its true effectiveness.
     
  • Enoxaparin is effective for the prevention of VTE after elective neurosurgery and has not been found to cause excessive bleeding.
     
  • Compression stockings are more effective at preventing venous thromboembolism when combined with low-molecular weight heparin than alone.