Summary

  1. There is level 3 evidence that those who sustain a TBI report greater levels of fatigue post injury.
     
  2. There is Level 3 evidence to suggest that higher levels of fatigue may lead to a poorer quality of life.
     
  3. There is Level 3 evidence, based on one study, that individuals who sustain a TBI do experience greater levels of fatigue and a decrease in vigilance, compared to those without an injury.
     
  4. There is Level 4 evidence, based on one study, to suggest that cognitive behavioural therapy may assist in treating insomnia and help in the management of fatigue post TBI.
     
  5. There is Level 2 evidence to suggest acupuncture is effective in improving perception of sleep and sleep quality in those who sustain a TBI.
     
  6. There is level 1b evidence, from a single study, that blue light therapy is effective in reducing fatigue and daytime sleepiness during treatment.
     
  7. There is Level 1a evidence that Modafinil is not effective in treating fatigue but has been shown to be effective short-term in treating excessive daytime sleepiness post ABI.
     
  8. There is Level 3 evidence, based on a single study, that methylphenidate does not have an adverse effect on the sleep-wake cycle of those who have sustained a TBI.