The Relationship Between Pneumonia, GCS and FIM Scores Post ABI

Author/ Year/ Country/Study design/N



Hansen et al.
Retrospective Review


Population: Severe TBI; Median Age=35yr; Median GCS Score=11.
Treatment: Chart review of patients admitted to a subacute rehabilitation facility. All patients had a mouth exam and a clinical examination of swallowing done.
Outcome Measure: Diagnosis of pneumonia, Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS), GCS, Ranchos Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), Functional Independence Measure (FIM).

  1. At admission, 27% had pneumonia and 12% developed pneumonia while on the unit.
  2. Of those 21 who had pneumonia on the unit, 81% (17) were totally dependent on tube feeding.
  3. Patients admitted with a low GCS (<9) were at a higher risk (25%) of developing pneumonia compared to GCS 9-12 (13%) and GCS>12 (2%).
  4. 23% of patients with a lower RLAS score developed pneumonia.
  5. Overall, differences in risk of pneumonia among groups was significant for GCS, RLAS and FOIS scores (p<0.01).
  6. Pneumonia developed in 18% of patients with low functional ability (FIM <19).